Jakob Øvrum's D blog

20 Jan 2016

Memory Safety

Memory Safe is a property of code which cannot incur memory errors when executed. Memory safety is a highly desirable property of programs; not only can memory errors be nondeterministic and thus hard to debug, but memory errors are infamous for causing security vulnerabilities.

D has opt-in statically checked memory safety, granular on the level of functions:

void main() @safe {
  import std.stdio;
  writeln("hello, world");

The @safe function attribute signals to the compiler that this function must be proven to be memory safe. Applying it to the main function is an effective way of requiring memory safety of the whole program *. The memory-unsafe counterpart of @safe is @system, which is the default.

As D is a systems programming language with many low-level features, @safe functions have a number of restrictions, including the inability to call @system functions.

The Default

If memory safety is so desirable, why is @system the default? Indeed, the majority of functions in most programs probably adhere to @safe whether they’re annotated as such or not, and the consensus seems to be that @safe would have been a better default. But alas, D did not always have these attributes, and @system is the default for reasons of backwards compatibility.

Applying Attributes

The good news is that applying function attributes to functions en masse is really simple with D’s flexible attribute syntax:

void foo(); // Implicitly @system, the default

@safe: // Note the colon!

void bar();
struct S { void baz(); }

In the above module, bar and S.baz are @safe, and anything added after S would also be @safe. Attribute applications can also be bounded on both sides:

@safe { // from here…
  void bar();
  struct S { void baz(); }
} // … to here

void foo(); // Implicitly @system, the default

Nearer attribute applictions override farther ones, which is handy when most functions in a module are @safe but a minority are @system:

void foo(); // @safe
@system void baz();
void bar(); // @safe

Judicious application of all three syntaxes alleviates the inconvenience of the default. Additionally, anonymous/lambda functions, templated functions and functions with inferred return type (auto functions) will have @safe inferred from the body of the function.

Bridging @safe and @system

As @safe functions cannot call @system functions, annotating the whole program with @safe seems impractical. To solve this, there is a mechanism for allowing @safe code to call @system code: @trusted.

Applying @trusted to a function signals to the compiler that this function’s interface has been manually verified by a human to be memory safe. That is, no possible argument combination * when calling this function from @safe code will cause a memory error.

@trusted functions have unrestricted access to all language features, including calling @system functions. Yet, @trusted functions are freely callable from @safe functions. The implication is that @trusted better be applied correctly, or the whole system of checked memory safety collapses and cannot provide any guarantees. Worse, until a memory error is encountered, hapless programmers are falsely led to believe @safe code is memory safe.

Guidelines for @trusted

Using @trusted correctly is important. To that end, a number of guidelines should be followed.

  1. Don’t annotate functions @trusted that can result in memory errors for a given set of inputs, as this defeats the whole purpose of @safe.
  2. Don’t annotate functions @trusted which haven’t been thoroughly vetted for the possibility of memory errors.
  3. Don’t annotate functions with @trusted using the @trusted: or @trusted { … } syntax even if all affected functions have been vetted for memory safety, as future programmers editing the code can easily miss the attribute. Having many @trusted functions is a sign that the attribute is being abused.
  4. If a function contains both checkable (@safe) and uncheckable code, factor the uncheckable code into a separate function. Smaller functions are easier to review for memory safety. Be careful to follow guideline 2 when doing this - the separate function must have a memory safe interface like all @trusted functions.
  5. When separating safe from unsafe, check the standard library for components that already fit the bill, e.g. minimallyInitializedArray.
  6. Exceptions can be thrown (with enforce) to further narrow down valid input in order to achieve a memory safe interface for @trusted functions.
  7. In general, do not apply @trusted to templated functions. See the next section for how to handle those.
  8. Comment liberally. More often than not, it is not obvious what the programmer has verified for memory safety. Leave a comment explicitly stating why this uncheckable code is still memory safe.
  9. Whenever a @trusted function is changed, vet it for memory safety in its updated form.

Note that both @safe and @trusted functions don’t have to be memory safe when called from @system functions. Thus, pointer or reference parameters can be assumed to refer to valid, initialized memory.

Templates and Attribute Inference

Templated functions can be conditionally memory safe depending on the template arguments used to instantiate the template. That is, some instantiations may be memory safe while others may not be. This is quite common; any templated function where a template argument can inject code is suspectible to this situation. Consider the following code:

void foo(T)(T t) {

struct SafeStruct { void bar() @safe; }
struct UnsafeStruct { void bar() @system; }

void main() {

Each call to foo injects a call to bar. We can tell that foo(SafeStruct()) is memory safe, and that foo(UnsafeStruct()) is not. Fortunately, so can the compiler: the former is accepted in @safe functions, while the latter is rejected. If foo was explicitly annotated with @safe, it would not be callable with UnsafeStruct from any code because of the call to the @system bar, hence templated functions are more general when attributes are inferred. Templated functions that can be inferred to be @safe for some instantiations can be called @safe-ready. This property can be tested with a @safe unit test block:

@safe unittest {
  foo(SafeStruct()); // Fails to compile if `foo` is not @safe-ready

Attribute inference isn’t just for function templates, it’s also performed for functions nested in function templates, as well as for member functions of templated types.

When template arguments do not inject code, feel free to explicitly annotate templated functions with function attributes. Inference can handle it, but explicit attributes show up in generated documentation, and provide documentation value for readers of the source code.

Templated functions like the above foo must never be annotated @trusted. When such a function cannot be automatically proven memory safe by attribute inference (i.e. it does not abide by the rules of @safe), a different approach must be taken.

@trusted and Templated Functions

Sometimes a templated function has a memory safe interface only for some instantiations, and uses language constructs disallowed in @safe, and that uncheckable code cannot be factored out into a separate function with a memory safe interface, thwarting attribute inference:

void foo(T)(T t) {
  auto p = &t; // taking the address of a local variable is disallowed in @safe functions

foo is not @safe-ready: All instantiations of foo are @system regardless of T. Yet we can tell that the function is memory safe as long as p.bar() is memory safe. However, the offending expression &t cannot be factored out into a separate function with a memory safe interface. To solve this, we will allow a limited exception to the rules of @trusted - @trusted nested functions in templated functions do not have to have a memory safe interface as long as all calls to the function are memory safe. That’s a mouthful, more easily demonstrated with code:

void foo(T)(T t) {
  // We know this is memory safe because `p` is not escaped from this function
  auto p = () @trusted { return &t; } ();

struct SafeStruct { void bar(); }

void main() {
  foo(SafeStruct()); // Now callable from @safe

Here, we apply @trusted to an anonymous nested function that doesn’t have a memory safe interface. However, we can tell that it’s not called in a way that could cause memory errors, such as by escaping the returned pointer to a global variable. Note that the anonymous function is called immediately (the trailing ()) and thus only in one place. Our function is now @safe-ready in a way that doesn’t compromise @safe.

This approach breaks with the strict guidelines of @trusted. This is a necessary evil to achieve @safe-ready, but there is little stopping future maintainers from using p in an unsafe way. When considering this approach, please make sure that a @trusted component with a memory safe interface is not possible, and please leave a comment keeping future maintainers informed of what assumptions need to hold for the code to remain memory safe.

Do not use this approach for non-templated functions. Between annotating an uncomfortably large swath of code with @trusted and breaking the guidelines of @trusted, the former is the lesser of two evils.


Some of these tricks apply to the other function attributes, pure, nothrow and @nogc. They can be applied to functions en masse with the same syntax, and templated functions will have these attributes inferred in the same way as @safe. Note that there is no equivalent of @trusted for the other attributes.

If you find your code doesn’t work with @safe, be very careful about applying @trusted. Presumably you wanted the benefits of @safe to begin with, which @trusted can easily break.

12 Jan 2016

Test Post

With permission I lifted a design wholesale from Josh Simmons. Thanks!

Code test

void main() @safe {
    import std.stdio : stdout;
    stdout.writeln("hello, world");

MathJax? Exciting!

\begin{aligned} \dot{x} & = \sigma(y-x)
\dot{y} & = \rho x - y - xz
\dot{z} & = -\beta z + xy \end{aligned}